Tag Archives: quran

The Real Islam of the University of Chicago’s Fred Donner

The following is a response to Dr. Stephen M Kirby’s criticism of Dr. Fred Donner’s book, Muhammad and the Believers at the Origins of Islam.

Indeed, Dr. Fred Donner’s book, Muhammad and the Believers at the Origins of Islam, is original in its research and certainly based on the Quran.

Stephen M Kirby’s criticism of Donner’s book can be summarized by the following unsavory facts.

  • Traditional Muslims Sources are not reliable. This is Donner’s truthful assertion.
  • Reliance on the Quran.
  • ‘O you who believe’ in the Quran is directed to anyone who believes in God.
  • The Quran makes a distinction between Christians who follow the Gospel and those who follow the Nicene Creed.
  • The Quran makes distinction between Jews who follow the Torah and those who follow the Talmud.

As we point out in our review of Robert Spencer’s book, The Complete Infidel’s Guide to the Koran:

  • The Koran is the only source of law or the only criterion per 6:114
  • The Koran is a fully detailed scripture per 6:11410:37
  • The words of God in the Koran are complete per 6:115
  • No words can abrogate God’s words in the Koran per 6:115 and 10:37
  • Koran is Hadith per 7:18512:11139:2345:652:3468:4477:50
  • The Koran is the only acceptable Hadith per 77:5045:67:185
  • The Arabic word sunnah (system) refers only to God’s sunnah and never as the Prophet’s sunnah per 17:7733:6248:23
  • That God is the Teacher of the Koran per 55:2

Monotheism

The Quran reminds us of the first commandment throughout the Quran.

[3:18] GOD bears witness that there is no god except He, and so do the angels and those who possess knowledge. Truthfully and equitably, He is the absolute god; there is no god but He, the Almighty, Most Wise.

Numerous verses in the Quran remind us to worship God alone such as 2:112, 3:150, 4:36, 4:146, 7:70, 10:104, 12:39, 22:31, 39:3, 39:17, 39:45, 40:12, 60:4.  This is within the confines of the first commandment and a message preached by all previous messengers including Jesus and Moses.

[ Mark 10:17-18] As he was setting out on a journey a man came running up, knelt down before him and asked, “Good Teacher, what must I do to share in everlasting life?” Jesus answered, “Why do you call me good? No one is good but God alone.’

[ Matthew 7:21] “None of those who call me `Lord’ will enter the kingdom of God, but only the one who does the will of my Father in heaven.”

“…Go to my brothers and tell them, `I am ascending to my Father and your Father, to my God and your God.’ ” [ John 20:17]

Idolatry – An unforgivable sin in the Quran

The Quran condemns idolatry which, if maintained until death, is an unforgivable sin.

[4:48] GOD does not forgive idolatry, but He forgives lesser offenses for whomever He wills. Anyone who sets up idols beside GOD, has forged a horrendous offense.

[4:116] GOD does not forgive idol worship (if maintained until death), and He forgives lesser offenses for whomever He wills. Anyone who idolizes any idol beside GOD has strayed far astray.

Thus, any Christian who follows the creed of Trinity created centuries after Jesus’s death in Nicene, commits idolatry.

Any Muslim, who upholds Hadith other than the Quran commits idolatry.

Any Jew who upholds the Talmud instead of the Torah is committing idolatry.

[34:53] They have rejected it in the past; they have decided instead to uphold conjecture and guesswork.*

*34:53 People of all religions tend to forsake the word of God and uphold the words of men. The Jews and the Muslims uphold the Mishnah (Hadith) and Gemarrah (Sunna), while the Christians uphold a trinity invented by the Nicene Conference, 325 years after Jesus.

The following examines Dr. Stephen M Kirby’s charge thatDonner had based his book on his unique, personal version of Fantasy Islam.”

“Donner’s ambivalence about the “traditional” sources”

From a historian’s perspective, documentary evidence from that period is exceedingly limited. From the Quranic perspective, we cannot draw any religious conclusions except from the Quran itself (see above).

This is an eye-opening claim because according to Islamic Doctrine it is blasphemy for a Muslim to lie about Muhammad.”

The various sects in Islam exist not because of disagreements about the Quran but disagreements about Hadith (stories) of Muhammad or lying about Muhammad. Obviously, all the sects are not right about Muhammad in their respective Hadith and thus they differ.

“.. many other authoritative Muslim sources ..”

By authoritative Muslim sources, Stephen M Kirby, means Hadith and Sunnah written centuries after the death of the Prophet and the revelation of the Quran. Each sect has their own authentic Hadith or “… authoritative Muslim sources …” There is a trove of treasure for Western writers like Robert Spencer as well as Eastern writers, in books of Hadith written 200+ years after the revelation of the Koran. These books are fiction and contain all kinds of nonsense which are utilized by Stephen Kirby.

Christians and Jews in general could be “Believers”?

The answer is yes from the Quran:

[2:62, 5:69] Surely, those who believe, those who are Jewish, the Christians, and the converts; anyone who (1) believes in GOD, and (2) believes in the Last Day, and (3) leads a righteous life, will receive their recompense from their Lord. They have nothing to fear, nor will they grieve.

The Jews, the Christians and those who received the Quran are free to follow their own scripture (Torah, Gospel or the Quran) and make judgements based on their scripture.

[5:44] We have sent down the Torah, containing guidance and light. Ruling in accordance with it were the Jewish prophets, as well as the rabbis and the priests, as dictated to them in GOD’s scripture, and as witnessed by them. Therefore, do not reverence human beings; you shall reverence Me instead. And do not trade away My revelations for a cheap price. Those who do not rule in accordance with GOD’s revelations are the disbelievers.

[5:46-47] Subsequent to them, we sent Jesus, the son of Mary, confirming the previous scripture, the Torah. We gave him the Gospel, containing guidance and light, and confirming the previous scriptures, the Torah, and augmenting its guidance and light, and to enlighten the righteous.
The people of the Gospel shall rule in accordance with GOD’s revelations therein. Those who do not rule in accordance with GOD’s revelations are the wicked.

[5:48] Then we revealed to you this scripture, truthfully, confirming previous scriptures, and superseding them. You shall rule among them in accordance with GOD’s revelations, and do not follow their wishes if they differ from the truth that came to you. For each of you, we have decreed laws and different rites. Had GOD willed, He could have made you one congregation. But He thus puts you to the test through the revelations He has given each of you. You shall compete in righteousness. To GOD is your final destiny – all of you – then He will inform you of everything you had disputed.

“Here are ten Koran verses that specifically stated that Jews and Christians (People of the Book/Scripture) were not “believers” (I have not included the entire verse but have just noted the differentiations being made)”

Here are the complete verses together with verses prior or after for context.

[74:31] We appointed angels to be guardians of Hell, and we assigned their number (19) (1) to disturb the disbelievers, (2) to convince the Christians and Jews (that this is a divine scripture), (3) to strengthen the faith of the faithful, (4) to remove all traces of doubt from the hearts of Christians, Jews, as well as the believers, and (5) to expose those who harbor doubt in their hearts, and the disbelievers; they will say, “What did GOD mean by this allegory?” GOD thus sends astray whomever He wills, and guides whomever He wills. None knows the soldiers of your Lord except He. This is a reminder for the people.

[2:62] Surely, those who believe, those who are Jewish, the Christians, and the converts; anyone who (1) believes in GOD, and (2) believes in the Last Day, and (3) leads a righteous life, will receive their recompense from their Lord. They have nothing to fear, nor will they grieve.

[2:117-121] The Initiator of the heavens and the earth: to have anything done, He simply says to it, “Be,” and it is.
Those who possess no knowledge say, “If only GOD could speak to us, or some miracle could come to us!” Others before them have uttered similar utterances; their minds are similar. We do manifest the miracles for those who have attained certainty.
We have sent you with the truth as a bearer of good news, as well as a warner. You are not answerable for those who incur Hell.
Neither the Jews, nor the Christians, will accept you, unless you follow their religion. Say, “GOD’s guidance is the true guidance.” If you acquiesce to their wishes, despite the knowledge you have received, you will find no ally or supporter to help you against GOD.
Those who received the scripture, and know it as it should be known, will believe in this. As for those who disbelieve, they are the losers.

[3:98-102] Say, “O followers of the scripture, why do you reject these revelations of GOD, when GOD is witnessing everything you do?”
Say, “O followers of the scripture, why do you repel from the path of GOD those who wish to believe, and seek to distort it, even though you are witnesses?” GOD is never unaware of anything you do. O you who believe, if you obey some of those who received the scripture, they will revert you, after having believed, into disbelievers. How can you disbelieve, when these revelations of GOD have been recited to you, and His messenger has come to you? Whoever holds fast to GOD will be guided in the right path. O you who believe, you shall observe GOD as He should be observed, and do not die except as Submitters.

[3:110] You are the best community ever raised among the people: you advocate righteousness and forbid evil, and you believe in GOD. If the followers of the scripture believed, it would be better for them. Some of them do believe, but the majority of them are wicked.

[5:44-46] We have sent down the Torah, containing guidance and light. Ruling in accordance with it were the Jewish prophets, as well as the rabbis and the priests, as dictated to them in GOD’s scripture, and as witnessed by them. Therefore, do not reverence human beings; you shall reverence Me instead. And do not trade away My revelations for a cheap price. Those who do not rule in accordance with GOD’s revelations are the disbelievers.
And we decreed for them in it that: the life for the life, the eye for the eye, the nose for the nose, the ear for the ear, the tooth for the tooth, and an equivalent injury for any injury. If one forfeits what is due to him as a charity, it will atone for his sins. Those who do not rule in accordance with GOD’s revelations are the unjust.
Subsequent to them, we sent Jesus, the son of Mary, confirming the previous scripture, the Torah. We gave him the Gospel, containing guidance and light, and confirming the previous scriptures, the Torah, and augmenting its guidance and light, and to enlighten the righteous.

[5:51] O you who believe, do not take certain Jews and Christians as allies; these are allies of one another. Those among you who ally themselves with these belong with them. GOD does not guide the transgressors.

[60:8-9] GOD does not enjoin you from befriending those who do not fight you because of religion, and do not evict you from your homes. You may befriend them and be equitable towards them. GOD loves the equitable.
GOD enjoins you only from befriending those who fight you because of religion, evict you from your homes, and band together with others to banish you. You shall not befriend them. Those who befriend them are the transgressors.

[5:64-66] The Jews even said, “GOD’s hand is tied down!” It is their hands that are tied down. They are condemned for uttering such a blasphemy. Instead, His hands are wide open, spending as He wills. For certain, your Lord’s revelations to you will cause many of them to plunge deeper into transgression and disbelief. Consequently, we have committed them to animosity and hatred among themselves until the Day of Resurrection. Whenever they ignite the flames of war, GOD puts them out. They roam the earth wickedly, and GOD dislikes the evildoers.
If only the people of the scripture believe and lead a righteous life, we will then remit their sins, and admit them into gardens of bliss.
If only they would uphold the Torah and the Gospel, and what is sent down to them herein from their Lord, they would be showered with blessings from above them and from beneath their feet. Some of them are righteous, but many of them are evildoers.

[5:69] Surely, those who believe, those who are Jewish, the converts, and the Christians; any of them who (1) believe in GOD and (2) believe in the Last Day, and (3) lead a righteous life, have nothing to fear, nor will they grieve.

[5:82-84] You will find that the worst enemies of the believers are the Jews and the idol worshipers. And you will find that the closest people in friendship to the believers are those who say, “We are Christian.” This is because they have priests and monks among them, and they are not arrogant.
When they hear what was revealed to the messenger, you see their eyes flooding with tears as they recognize the truth therein, and they say, “Our Lord, we have believed, so count us among the witnesses.
Why should we not believe in GOD, and in the truth that has come to us, and hope that our Lord may admit us with the righteous people?”

[22:17] Those who believe, those who are Jewish, the converts, the Christians, the Zoroastrians, and the idol worshipers, GOD is the One who will judge among them on the Day of Resurrection. GOD witnesses all things.

“Donner said that the Koran was the best source of information about the early Believers’ movement; with these ten verses we can see that a distinction had been made between the People of the Scripture and the “believers” since the early days of Islam.”

The People of the Scripture in the Quran also includes those who received the Quran. The People of the Scripture include Muslims, Christians and the Jews.

[98:1] Those who disbelieved among the people of the scripture, as well as the idol worshipers, insist on their ways, despite the proof given to them.

[5:19] O people of the scripture, our messenger has come to you, to explain things to you, after a period of time without messengers, lest you say, “We did not receive any preacher or warner.” A preacher and warner has now come to you. GOD is Omnipotent.

[29:46] Do not argue with the people of the scripture (Jews, Christians, and Muslims) except in the nicest possible manner – unless they transgress – and say, “We believe in what was revealed to us and in what was revealed to you, and our god and your god is one and the same; to Him we are submitters.”

“We can see then that the Koran’s rejection of the divinity of Christ began in the very early days of the Believers’ movement, so it is difficult to see how Donner could claim that any Christians maintaining a belief in Christ’s divinity could have actually been a part of that movement.”


There are Christians today who not believe in the divinity of Christ just like Christians at the time of Muhammad. There are Christians today who reject the creation of Trinity by men 300+ years after the death of Jesus in the Nicene Creed.

The verses which Stephen Kirby refers to are reproduced below and they are a warning to those who uphold man-made divinity for Jesus. As pointed out above the Quran is equally strong on idolatry of anyone including Muhammad, Jesus, the saints, or scholars.

[5:72-75] Pagans indeed are those who say that GOD is the Messiah, son of Mary. The Messiah himself said, “O Children of Israel, you shall worship GOD; my Lord and your Lord.” Anyone who sets up any idol beside GOD, GOD has forbidden Paradise for him, and his destiny is Hell. The wicked have no helpers.
Pagans indeed are those who say that GOD is a third of a trinity. There is no god except the one god. Unless they refrain from saying this, those who disbelieve among them will incur a painful retribution.
Would they not repent to GOD, and ask His forgiveness? GOD is Forgiver, Most Merciful.
The Messiah, son of Mary, is no more than a messenger like the messengers before him, and his mother was a saint. Both of them used to eat the food. Note how we explain the revelations for them, and note how they still deviate!

[9:30] The Jews said, “Ezra is the son of GOD,” while the Christians said, “Jesus is the son of GOD!” These are blasphemies uttered by their mouths. They thus match the blasphemies of those who have disbelieved in the past. GOD condemns them. They have surely deviated.

[9:31] They have set up their religious leaders and scholars as lords, instead of GOD. Others deified the Messiah, son of Mary. They were all commanded to worship only one god. There is no god except He. Be He glorified, high above having any partners.

[4:48] GOD does not forgive idolatry, but He forgives lesser offenses for whomever He wills. Anyone who sets up idols beside GOD, has forged a horrendous offense.

[4:157-158] And for claiming that they killed the Messiah, Jesus, son of Mary, the messenger of GOD. In fact, they never killed him, they never crucified him – they were made to think that they did. All factions who are disputing in this matter are full of doubt concerning this issue. They possess no knowledge; they only conjecture. For certain, they never killed him.
Instead, GOD raised him to Him; GOD is Almighty, Most Wise.

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[3:49-51] As a messenger to the Children of Israel: “I come to you with a sign from your Lord – I create for you from clay the shape of a bird, then I blow into it, and it becomes a live bird by GOD’s leave. I restore vision to the blind, heal the leprous, and I revive the dead by GOD’s leave. I can tell you what you eat, and what you store in your homes. This should be a proof for you, if you are believers.
“I confirm previous scripture – the Torah – and I revoke certain prohibitions imposed upon you. I come to you with sufficient proof from your Lord. Therefore, you shall observe GOD, and obey me.
“GOD is my Lord and your Lord; you shall worship Him alone. This is the right path.”

[4:171-172]  O people of the scripture, do not transgress the limits of your religion, and do not say about GOD except the truth. The Messiah, Jesus, the son of Mary, was a messenger of GOD, and His word that He had sent to Mary, and a revelation from Him. Therefore, you shall believe in GOD and His messengers. You shall not say, “Trinity.” You shall refrain from this for your own good. GOD is only one god. Be He glorified; He is much too glorious to have a son. To Him belongs everything in the heavens and everything on earth. GOD suffices as Lord and Master. The Messiah would never disdain from being a servant of GOD, nor would the closest angels. Those who disdain from worshiping Him, and are too arrogant to submit, He will summon them all before Him.

[19:29-36] She pointed to him. They said, “How can we talk with an infant in the crib?” (The infant spoke and) said, “I am a servant of GOD. He has given me the scripture, and has appointed me a prophet. “He made me blessed wherever I go, and enjoined me to observe the Contact Prayers (Salat) and the obligatory charity (Zakat) for as long as I live. “I am to honor my mother; He did not make me a disobedient rebel. And peace be upon me the day I was born, the day I die, and the day I get resurrected.”
That was Jesus, the son of Mary, and this is the truth of this matter, about which they continue to doubt. It does not befit GOD that He begets a son, be He glorified. To have anything done, He simply says to it, “Be,” and it is. He also proclaimed, “GOD is my Lord and your Lord; you shall worship Him alone. This is the right path.”

[43:57-59] When the son of Mary was cited as an example, your people disregarded it.
They said, “Is it better to worship our gods, or to worship him?” They said this only to argue with you. Indeed, they are people who have joined the opposition.
He was no more than a servant whom we blessed, and we sent him as an example for the Children of Israel.

[61:6] Recall that Jesus, son of Mary, said, “O Children of Israel, I am GOD’s messenger to you, confirming the Torah and bringing good news of a messenger to come after me whose name will be even more praised (Ahmad).” Then, when he showed them the clear proofs, they said, “This is profound magic.”

“What about the Jews? Let’s start off with the first chapter of the Koran, Al-Fatihah. This chapter was revealed in Mecca and was among the first chapters of the Koran to be revealed.”

In his desperation, Stephen Kirby turns completely to fiction. He does refer to some Quran verses reproduced below but relies on “authoritative Muslim scholars.” He has no basis from the Quran. No comment is needed on his “authoritative sources” written centuries after the revelation of the Quran.


[1:1] In the name of GOD, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.
[1:2] Praise be to GOD, Lord of the universe.
[1:3] Most Gracious, Most Merciful.
[1:4] Master of the Day of Judgment.
[1:5] You alone we worship; You alone we ask for help.
[1:6] Guide us in the right path;
[1:7] the path of those whom You blessed; not of those who have deserved wrath, nor of the strayers.

[2:61] Recall that you said, “O Moses, we can no longer tolerate one kind of food. Call upon your Lord to produce for us such earthly crops as beans, cucumbers, garlic, lentils, and onions.” He said, “Do you wish to substitute that which is inferior for that which is good? Go down to Egypt, where you can find what you asked for.” They have incurred condemnation, humiliation, and disgrace, and brought upon themselves wrath from GOD. This is because they rejected GOD’s revelations, and killed the prophets unjustly. This is because they disobeyed and transgressed.

[3:110-113] You are the best community ever raised among the people: you advocate righteousness and forbid evil, and you believe in GOD. If the followers of the scripture believed, it would be better for them. Some of them do believe, but the majority of them are wicked.
They can never harm you, beyond insulting you. If they fight you, they will turn around and flee. They can never win.
They shall be humiliated whenever you encounter them, unless they uphold GOD’s covenant, as well as their peace covenants with you. They have incurred wrath from GOD, and, consequently, they are committed to disgrace. This is because they rejected GOD’s revelations, and killed the prophets unjustly. This is because they disobeyed and transgressed.
They are not all the same; among the followers of the scripture, there are those who are righteous. They recite GOD’s revelations through the night, and they fall prostrate.

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[60:13]  O you who believe, do not befriend people with whom GOD is angry, and who are hopelessly stuck in disbelief; they are just as hopeless as the disbelievers who are already in the graves.

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[2:109]  Many followers of the scripture would rather see you revert to disbelief, now that you have believed. This is due to jealousy on their part, after the truth has become evident to them. You shall pardon them, and leave them alone, until GOD issues His judgment. GOD is Omnipotent.

[3:71] O followers of the scripture, why do you confound the truth with falsehood, and conceal the truth, knowingly?

[3:98-100]  Say, “O followers of the scripture, why do you reject these revelations of GOD, when GOD is witnessing everything you do?”
Say, “O followers of the scripture, why do you repel from the path of GOD those who wish to believe, and seek to distort it, even though you are witnesses?” GOD is never unaware of anything you do.
O you who believe, if you obey some of those who received the scripture, they will revert you, after having believed, into disbelievers.

Chasing a Mirage: The Tragic Illusion of an Islamic State

Tarek Fatah provides historical evidence, from the time of Prophet Muhammad to the present, of the illusion of an Islamic State. He also points outs that most Muslims would individually prefer to live in the state of islam (submission to God) rather than an Islamic State.

O you who believe, you shall embrace total submission (islam); do not follow the steps of Satan, for he is your most ardent enemy. [2:208]

If GOD renders one’s heart content with Submission (islam), he will be following a light from his Lord. Therefore, woe to those whose hearts are hardened against GOD’s message; they have gone far astray. [39:22]

Moreover, Abraham exhorted his children to do the same, and so did Jacob: “O my children, GOD has pointed out the religion for you; do not die except as submitters (muslims).” [2:132]

Had you witnessed Jacob on his death bed; he said to his children, “What will you worship after I die?” They said, “We will worship your god; the god of your fathers Abraham, Ismail, and Isaac; the one god. To Him we are submitters (muslims).” [2:133]

Say, “We believe in GOD, and in what was sent down to us, and in what was sent down to Abraham, Ismail, Isaac, Jacob, and the Patriarchs, and in what was given to Moses, Jesus, and the prophets from their Lord. We make no distinction among any of them. To Him alone we are submitters (muslims).” [3:84]

Indeed, the Quran is explicit that an individual has the freedom to make a decision to be a submitter (muslim) and practice the religion of submission (islam) to God.

Tarek Fatah correctly points out that there is nothing in the Quran which even remotely advocates an Islamic State. Neither is there anything in the Quran which allows an individual to accept any source of law (sharia) other than God’s words in the Quran.

  • The Quran is a fully detailed scripture per 6:11410:37
  • The Quran is the only source of law or the only criterion per 6:114
  • The words of God in the Quran are complete per 6:115
  • No words can abrogate God’s words in the Quran per 6:115 and 10:37
  • Quran is Hadith per 7:18512:11139:2345:652:3468:4477:50
  • The Quran is the only acceptable Hadith per 77:5045:67:185
  • The Arabic word sunnah (system) refers only to God’s sunnah and never as the Prophet’s sunnah per 17:7733:6248:23
  • That God is the Teacher of the Quran per 55:2

The above is not acceptable to most who call themselves ‘Muslims’ whether they consider themselves Sunni, Shia or any other sect. The above is not acceptable to the Wahhabis, Salafis, Muslim Brotherhood or the followers of Sayyid Qutb or Abul A’la Maududi.

Belief in God dictates that a person believes God. The Quran, a proven scripture, stands on its own. Worshipping God alone mandates that only God’s words be upheld as the source of law. The path out of misery for Muslims around the world is to believe, accept, obey and submit to God’s words in the Quran. The illusion of an Islamic state will vanish with the acceptance of the Quran as complete, perfect and fully detailed.

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Tareq Fatah’s book is well written and researched. Part one of the book covers the theology of an Islamic State with Pakistan, Iran and Saudi Arabia as examples of woeful states. He examines the mixing of Islamism and Marxism to the Palestine case as weakening of their cause.

Part two covers period after Prophet Muhammad’s death and subsequent empires in Damascus, Cardoba and Baghdad. He correctly points out that the empire flourished in Damascus, Cardoba and Baghdad because of freedom  – God’s gift to mankind in the Quran (2:256, 18:29).

We, however, take issue with history at the time of Prophet Muhammad and the ‘Rightly Guided Caliphs.’ This period and history is presented well by Dr. Fred Donner and his research.

Part three of the book explores Hijab, Jihad and Sharia as understood by the Muslims with that understanding having no support whatsoever in the Quran.

Tareq Fatah ends the book cautioning the West about the Islamists agenda (which has no support in the Quran).

No god but God

The book is excellent and gives the history from the time of Prophet Muhammad to the current status of Islam in the world.

Reza Aslam rejects Patricia Crone’s conclusion that “everything about prophet Muhammad and rise of Islam is a complete fabrication created by Arab story tellers in the 8th and 9th centuries”, and relies on traditions to an extent, for the history at the time of Prophet Muhammad, and the first few centuries after his death.

Our preference would be Dr Fred Donner’s research on how Islam began. Per Dr. Donner only two documents are authentic from the time of Prophet Muhammad – the Quran and the Medina Agreement  (Mīthāq al-Madīnah) between Muhammad and the tribes of Medina. As pointed out by Donner and Aslan, the Christians and Jews were considered part of the single Ummah together with the followers of Muhammad.

The Quran does not look kindly upon religious scholars (9:31). This book points out the sway of scholars in the eleventh century, “..institutionalize their legal and theological opinions into distinct schools of thought but also to formulate a binding, comprehensive code of conduct called Shariah, forever transforming Islam from a religion into all-embracing way of life: one that the  Ulama claimed the sole authority to define.”

Reza Aslam points out, “But it was the Modernist demand that the Shariah be withdrawn entirely from the civil sphere that cause the greatest concern among the Ulama.”

The book provides an excellent summary of scholarly thought from Iqbal, Maudoodi, Hasan Al Banna, Sayyid Qutb and others in the last 100 years. He traces the world’s first Islamic socialist movement – Muslim Brotherhood, Islamism, Salafism, Wahabism and Jihadism.

All these movements, most of which include violence, claim the Quran and Shariah as their source. However, none of them could claim only the Quran as their source. Adding the Shariah as a source brings in the human element and human words and thus one can choose words of their choosing to justify anything they want.

Reza Aslam mentions Islamic Reformation, “Indeed, one of the fastest-growing and most dynamic movements within Islam today is being led by an international community of Muslims, called Quranists, who reject all sources of authority in Islam – the hadith, the Sunnah, The Shariah – save the Quran.”

We take issue with Reza Aslan on the following:

“Three years after revelation began 613, the declaration of faith was: there is no god but God and Muhammad is God’s messenger.”

The declaration of faith according to the Quran is “there is no god”. The declaration in the Quran does not have Muhammad’s name next to God’s. This ‘double shahaada’ was fabricated by the scholars about 70-100 years after prophet Muhammad’s death. Anyone can verify this by searching for early Islamic coins which had the correct declaration which did not include Muhammad’s name.

“The Quran itself repeatly affirms the importance of blood relations (2:177, 215), and endows Muhammad’s family – the ahl al-bayt – with an eminent position in the Ummah, somewhat akin to that enjoyed by the families of the other prophets.”

Righteousness is not turning your faces towards the east or the west. Righteous are those who believe in GOD, the Last Day, the angels, the scripture, and the prophets; and they give the money, cheerfully, to the relatives, the orphans, the needy, the traveling alien, the beggars, and to free the slaves; and they observe the Contact Prayers (Salat) and give the obligatory charity (Zakat); and they keep their word whenever they make a promise; and they steadfastly persevere in the face of persecution, hardship, and war. These are the truthful; these are the righteous. [2:177]

They ask you about giving: say, “The charity you give shall go to the parents, the relatives, the orphans, the poor, and the traveling alien.” Any good you do, GOD is fully aware thereof. [2:215]

These verses do not blood relations in Muhammad’s family for significance for political or religious control.

“Verse 2:106”

When we abrogate any miracle, or cause it to be forgotten, we produce a better miracle, or at least an equal one. Do you not recognize the fact that GOD is Omnipotent? [2:106]

The Quran contains a mathematical miracle per verses 74:30-35 plus numerous other verses revealed to the current computer literate generation.

Supporting a point of view by God’s words in the Quran

CAN YOU SUPPORT YOUR POINT OF VIEW BY GOD’S WORDS IN THE QURAN?

 

Unfortunately, only some submitters adhere to the above, even though the Quran and God’s messenger are clear and explicit about the above.

[6:114] Shall I seek other than GOD as a source of law, when He has revealed to you this book fully detailed? Those who received the scripture recognize that it has been revealed from your Lord, truthfully. You shall not harbor any doubt.
[6:115] The word of your Lord is complete, in truth and justice. Nothing shall abrogate His words. He is the Hearer, the Omniscient.
[18:27] … Nothing shall abrogate His words, and you shall not find any other source beside it.

“We are people who follow the Quran, the whole Quran and nothing but the Quran. Therefore, anybody and this means anybody who brings any information must conform to the Quran, the whole Quran and nothing but the Quran.  And if anyone, I will underline anyone, who comes up with information that is not confirmed by the Quran, we tell him forget it, we don’t accept it. The criterion is preaching, confirming existing scripture, the Quran and nothing else.” – Rashad Khalifa, Khutba announcing his messengership, April 1988.

NEWCOMERS TO SUBMISSION URGED TO VERIFY FROM QURAN

Most of us, when we were first given the message, verified directly from the Quran. Thus, for the correct Shahadah, we would look at the words of 3:18, 47:19 and others similar verses of the Quran. We verified certain aspects the great mathematical miracle of the Quran like number of Suras or the number of letters in the Basmallah or the total number of verses in the Quran. We looked closely at the words of 3:81 to be validate that a messenger will come after all the prophets or 33:40 to ascertain that Muhammad was not the last messenger. Newcomers are encouraged and expected to do their homework of verifying from the Quran.

“THERE IS NO GOD EXCEPT ME; YOU SHALL WORSHIP ME ALONE” [21:25]

Like all previous messengers, the message of the messenger after the prophets was to worship God alone (39:45). The messenger made it clear that we worship God by upholding only God’s words in the Quran (17:46, 25:30). God blessed us by providing proof that every word of the Quran is a Proven Word of God. The messenger brought forth other information embedded within the Quran by God’s leave like the age of 40, the feud in the High Society, etc. In the February 1990 Newsletter, Dr. Khalifa states, “As stated in 3:81 and 46:9, God’s Messenger of the Covenant does not bring anything new; everything I receive and pass on to you is already in the Quran.”

The messenger summarized the embedded information in his English translation of the Quran. Thus, an Introduction gives a Quranic basis to the Religion of Submission and answers the question, “why are we here?” Appendices in the translation give details of the mathematical miracle of the Quran, proof of messengership and other issues of relevance. As an example, in Appendix 9, the messenger explains God’s divine preservation of religious duties from the time of Abraham to now with the Quran correcting all corruptions in religious duties and associated rituals. Neither Muhammad nor Rashad Khalifa were ‘given’ the steps for ‘how to perform salat’.

THE QURAN AND THE MIRACLE DID NOT COME TO US DIRECTLY FROM GOD

Dr. Khalifa states in his Book, Quran, Hadith & Islam:

“Only a little thinking leads us to realize that Quran came to us through Muhammad’s mouth, and DID NOT COME TO US FROM GOD DIRECTLY. Hence the commandment that we shall obey the messenger…for he utters the words of God.

“When we seek “religious” instructions from Muhammad, or any other source beside God, we support Satan in his claim that God needs a partner. Therefore, those who worship God ALONE follow the instructions and teachings of GOD ALONE. As shown throughout this book, God’s teachings are complete, perfect, and fully detailed in Quran.”

Similarly, the delivery of the miracle and embedded information did not come to us directly from God.

RESISTANCE TO SUPPORTING YOUR POINT OF VIEW EXCLUSIVELY BY GOD’S WORDS IN THE QURAN

What is the point when a submitter, who in the process of accepting the message and verifying directly from the Quran (17:36), like the examples given above, transform from a submitter into a potential submitter who seeks “religious” instructions from Rashad and supports Satan in his claim that God needs a partner?

The answer is very simple. It is the point when one gets away from worshipping of God alone (inability to uphold God’s complete words in the Quran), and therefore that person is stripped of common sense. The following are some examples of stripped common sense of those who cannot give a point of view based exclusively on Quran.

–           They cannot define the word Quran. To them, it is something other that the Arabic Quran given to Prophet Muhammad.
–           They cannot accept that God’s words are complete in the Quran per 6:115.
–           They cannot accept that those complete words are the only source of law per 6:114.
–           They cannot accept that God’s words which make up the book (Quran) provide explanations for everything per 16:89
–           They cannot accept that God’s words in the scripture (Quran) contains the message per 21:10.

–           They cannot accept that God’s words in the Quran are called Hadith (a lowly word according to them) and that we cannot accept ANY other Hadith per 77:50, 7:185 and 45:6. Even though God calls His Glorious words in the Quran, Hadith, they are unwilling to call Rashad Khalifa’s words as Hadith.

–           They consider the messenger’s words in footnotes, subheadings, appendices, etc. as same as or ‘at par’ with God’s words in the 6346 verses of the Quran.

–           They consider the messenger, Rashad Khalifa as infallible and uphold his words as a source of law thus establishing a partner with God (under the guise of ‘authorized explanations’).

**

The human messenger imparted the message of worshiping God alone in his human words. The messenger’s words comprise of footnotes, appendices, subheadings, audios, videos, books and newsletters.

We can certainly impart the message by giving a potential believer, Dr. Khalifa’s Translation of the Quran, as it contains embedded information including the miracle of the Quran. We can provide the potential believer access to the audios, videos, books, etc.

However, if you worship God alone, can you support your point of view directly by God’s complete words in the Quran? Or do you need a partner to associate (shirk) with God’s words?

The messenger said, “My Lord, my people have deserted this Quran.” [25:30]

**

None of the above, in any way, means that any of Dr. Khalifa’s work should be cast aside nor does it mean that a thorough study of his should not be done nor does it mean that anyone should be discouraged from study of his works/videos, etc.

It simply means, that when a point of view is advocated, can support from the words of the Quran be provided. The source remains the Quran (Statute Book).  For Statute Law explanations and teachings do not become a source of law.

RELATED LINKS

Admission Test Q&A
Idolatry Q&A
Obey God and His Messenger
Rashad Khalifa on Quran alone
Reversion to Idolatry
Quran Text
Appendices in Rashad Khalifa Translation

Equality of Man and Woman in the Quran

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Losing my religion for equality

Former President Jimmy Carter, a practicing Christian all his life and a deacon and Bible teacher for many years, has severed his ties with Southern Baptist Convention after six decades. The reason:

“Women and girls have been discriminated against for too long in a twisted interpretation of the word of God.”

The reference to the Word of God is the Bible. The Bible places the blame on Eve for the original sin. Mr. Jimmy Carter has joined The Elders,  an independent group of eminent global leaders, brought together by former South African president Nelson Mandela, which issued a statement that declares:

“The justification of discrimination against women and girls on grounds of religion or tradition, as if it were prescribed by a Higher Authority, is unacceptable.”

The proven word of God, unaltered and fully preserved since revelation does not place the blame on Eve for the original sin. Both Adam and Eve are blamed equally for that sin in the Quran

[7:22] He thus duped them with lies. As soon as they tasted the tree, their bodies became visible to them, and they tried to cover themselves with the leaves of Paradise. Their Lord called upon them: “Did I not enjoin you from that tree, and warn you that the devil is your most ardent enemy?”

[7:23] They said, “Our Lord, we have wronged our souls, and unless You forgive us and have mercy on us, we will be losers.”

[7:24] He said, “Go down as enemies of one another. On earth shall be your habitation and provision for awhile.”

[7:25] He said, “On it you will live, on it you will die, and from it you will be brought out.”

[7:26] O children of Adam, we have provided you with garments to cover your bodies, as well as for luxury. But the best garment is the garment of righteousness. These are some of GOD’s signs, that they may take heed.

CREATION IN THE QURAN

In the chapter (Sura) entitled ‘Women’ the very first verse states:

[4:1] O people, observe your Lord; the One who created you from one being, and created from it its mate, then spread from the two many men and women. You shall regard GOD, by whom you swear, and regard the parents. GOD is watching over you.

THE QURAN ON WOMEN

Women were given rights to own property and the right to divorce 1400 years ago; rights which women in the west acquired in the last two centuries.

Men and women are considered as equal in the Quran. The Quran gives the example of Sheba as a righteous believer (Muslim) as a leader of a nation.

The present status of women in the Islamic World is shameful and the laws which suppress them are not in the Quran. The vast majority of Muslims worldwide have deserted the Quran in favor of man-made laws written after more than two centuries after the revelation of the Quran.

 

 

 

Quran alone

Katie Zavadski writes the The Study Quran project is a source of consternation for the Saudi Arabia domination of the majority of English translations of the Quran.

She details in “The American Quran Pissing Off the Saudis” how the Saudis with their Wahhabi branch of Islam have poisoned religious texts across the Arab world, Asia, Europe and North America. They have exported their religious teachers and control mosques worldwide.

The Study Quran  project is similar to the various translations proffered by the Salafis and the Wahhabis.

Both give primary importance to the scholars (dead or alive) words rather than the Words of God in the Quran. The Words of God in the Quran are dismissed in favor of words of their scholars who no doubt provide them with meanings and interpretations to their liking.

Thus the various sects in Islam have no disagreement about the Quran, but will fight and kill each other based on disagreements among their scholars and religious leaders. Thus they fail to worship God alone as commanded in the Quran, but follow religious laws promulgated by their scholars.

Their consequence of not accepting the Quran alone are horrendous  and is reflected in the state of the Islamic world.

[17:46]  We place shields around their minds, to prevent them from understanding it, and deafness in their ears. And when you preach your Lord, using the Quran ALONE, they run away in aversion.

[39:45]  When GOD ALONE is mentioned, the hearts of those who do not believe in the Hereafter shrink with aversion. But when others are mentioned beside Him, they become satisfied.

[40:12]  This is because when GOD ALONE was advocated, you disbelieved, but when others were mentioned beside Him, you believed. Therefore, GOD‘s judgment has been issued; He is the Most High, the Great.

[40:14]  Therefore, you shall devote your worship absolutely to GOD ALONE, even if the disbelievers dislike it.

The Study Quran Translation

And when God is mentioned alone, the hearts of those who believe not in the Hereafter recoil. But when those apart from him are mentioned, behold, they rejoice. [39:45 – The Study Quran]

The translators of the Quran and the editors of THE STUDY QURAN validate that they do not follow nor observe God’s Words and commandments in the Quran. They demonstrate the condition of the majority of those who call themselves Muslims (the Arabic word Muslim translates in English as Submitter) who have either no knowledge of the Quran or if they do have the knowledge they simply do not obey God’s Words in the Quran.

Their translation (used here) states that the Quran is fully detailed for religious law and the only acceptable Hadith and Sunnah. BELIEF in God dictates that God should be BELIEVED. The editors and translators of this project do not believe nor submit to God’s own Words in the Quran.

QURAN – FULLY DETAILED

Say, “What thing is greatest as testimony?” Say, “God is witness between you and me. And this Quran has been revealed unto me, that thereby I may warn you and whomsoever it may reach. Do you bear witness there are other gods beside God?” say, “I bear no such witness.” Say, “He is only One God, and truly I am quit of that which you ascribe as partners unto him.” [6:19]

. . –We have neglected nothing in the book- . . [6:38]

(Say) “Shall I seek a judge apart from God, when it is He Who has sent down unto you the book, expounded?” Those unto whom We have given the Book know that it has been sent down from thy Lord in truth; so be not among the doubters. [6:114]

The Word of Thy Lord is fulfilled in truth and justice. None alters His Words, and He is the Hearing, the knowing. [6:115]

We have indeed brought them a Book, which We have expounded with knowledge, as a guidance and a mercy for a people who believe. [7:52]

Following a source other than Quran is but idolatry (18:27) as a god other than God is being followed for religious law.

RELIGION OF ABRAHAM

Islam (the Arabic word Islam translates in English as submission) is called the Religion of Abraham in the Quran. We produce the following translated verses from The Study Quran to point out that ours is indeed the Religion (Creed) of Abraham, and to point out that the translators left the Arabic word, a hanif, untranslated. Hanif translates as monotheist.

And who shuns the creed of Abraham, but a foolish soul? We chose him in this world and in the Hereafter he shall be among the righteous. [2:130]

And they say, “Be Jews or Christians and you shall be rightly guided.” Say, “Rather [ours is] the creed of Abraham, a hanif, and he was not of the idolaters,” [2:135]

Say, “Truly my Lord has guided me unto a straight path, an upright religion, the creed of Abraham, a hanif, and he was not of the idolaters.” [6:161]

Then we revealed unto thee, “Follow the creed of Abraham, a hanif, and he was not among the idolaters.” [16:123]

HADITH

Just like the Arabic word Hanif is untranslated above, The Study Quran translators and editors could have left the Arabic Words Hadith and Sunnah untranslated in the following verses. Leaving those two words untranslated would make sense as those words are increasing referred to in the media.

However, had The Study Quran translators and editors left the Arabic Words Hadith and Sunnah untranslated, the bottom would fall out of their entire project. The Quran makes it clear that the only Hadith to be followed is the Quran itself and no Hadith other than the Quran can be followed. We have inserted in the following translated verses the Arabic Word Hadith and the Arabic Word Sunnah.

Certainly in their stories is a lesson for those possessed on intellect. It is not a fabricated account (Hadith); rather, it is a confirmation of that which came before it, and an elaboration of all things, and a guidance and a mercy for a people who believe. [12:111]

So in what discourse (Hadith) after this will they believe? [77:50]

These are the signs of God that we recite unto thee in truth. So in what discourse (Hadith) after God and His signs do they believe? [45:6]

So leave Me with those who deny this discourse (Hadith). We shall lead them on little by little, whence they know not. [68:44]

So in what discourse (Hadith) after this will they believe. [7:185]

And among mankind are those who purchase idle discourse (Hadith) to lead astray from the way of God without knowledge and who take it in mockery; for them there shall be humiliating punishment. [31:6]

God has sent down the most beautiful discourse (Hadith), a Book con-similar, paired, whereat quivers the skin of those who fear their Lord. [39:23]

SUNNAH

Sunnah means system. The Quran only refers to God’s system and never to the Prophet’s system nor the messenger’s system nor to Mohammad’s system.

[That is] the wont (Sunnah) of God that came to pass aforetime; and you will find no alteration in the wont (Sunnah) of God. [48:23]

But their believing benefited them not when they saw Our Might. [That is} the wont (Sunnah) of God which has been passed among His servants; and the disbelievers were then lost. [40:85]

Thou shalt find no alteration in the wont (Sunnah) of God, and thou shalt find no change in the wont (Sunnah) of God. [35:43]

[That is] the wont (Sunnah) of God with those who passed before; and you will find no alteration in the wont (Sunnah) of God. [33:62]

FIRST COMMANDMENT

The first commandment – you shall not worship except God – is central to The Quran, the Torah, the Gospel and the Creed of Abraham.

God bears witness that there is no god but He, as do the angels and the possessors of knowledge, upholding justice. There is no god but He, the Mighty the Wise. [3:18]

Know, then, that there is no god but God, and ask forgiveness for thy sin and for the believing men and believing women. God knows your coming and going, and your abode. [47:19]

Say, “I am only a warner, and there is no god but God, the One, the Paramount. [38:65]

Indeed, when it is said unto them, “There is no god but God,” they waxed arrogant. [38:65]

NO DISTINCTION AMONG MESSENGERS

The Quran forbids us in making any distinction among God’s messengers. The Religion of Submission (In Arabic: Islam) is a Religion of God. It is not a religion about Mohammad, Jesus, Moses, who among others were merely messengers of God.

Say, “We believe in God, and in that which was sent down unto us, and in that which was sent down on Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, and the Tribes, and in what Moses and Jesus were given, and in what the prophets were given from their Lord. We make no distinction among any of them, and unto him we submit. [2:136]

The messenger believes in what was sent down to him from his Lord, as do the believers. Each believes in God, His Angels, His Books, and His messengers. “We make no distinction between any of His messengers.” And they say, “We hear and obey. Thy forgiveness, our Lord! And unto Thee is the journey’s end.” [2:285]

Say, “We believe in God, and in that which was sent down unto us, and in that which was sent down upon Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, and the Tribes, and in what Moses, Jesus and the prophets were given from their Lord. We make no distinction among any of them, and unto him we submit. [3:84]

But those who believe in God and His messengers and make no distinction between them – unto them He will give their rewards. God is forgiving, Merciful. [4:152]

DESERTION OF THE QURAN

And the Messenger will say, “O my Lord! Truly my people have taken this Quran for foolishness.” [24:30]

And so too have the translators and editors of The Study Quran taken the Quran as foolishness.

The translation has 1996 pages, sure to turn off anyone seeking a study of the Quran, even though the translation itself covers 1584 pages. Less than 20% of the words in the translation are the actual translated words of the Quran.

The translators and editors of The Study Quran suppress the Words of God in the Quran to the words of humans. They attribute reverence to those human’s words written centuries after the revelation of the Quran. They call those human words Hadith & Sunnah. As the Quran and their own translation states the only acceptable Hadith and the only acceptable Sunnah are the words of the Quran.

The Sunnis, Shias and the various sects in Islam have no differences about the Quran. Each sect has its own “authentic” Hadith. Each sect draws conclusions about various verses of the Quran through the lenses of their Hadith. So too have the translators and editors of The Study Quran. The simple and clear verses and the words of the Quran are drowned by the words of humans. The Creator’s Words are secondary to the words of God’s human creatures to the translators and editors of The Study Quran.

By giving the words of men in Hadith and Sunnah abrogation authority, over the Word of GOD in the Quran the translators and editors of The Study Quran have committed the very thing GOD commanded not to do in verses 6:114-115.

The Hadith and Sunnah literature may be valuable as sources of history but none of them can be used to derive meanings of the Quran. All interpretation and meaning should be derived in light of the Quran.

IN LIGHT OF THE QURAN

O you who believe! Ask not about things which, if they were disclosed to you, would trouble you. And if you ask them while the Quran is being sent down, they will be disclosed to you. God has pardoned this, and God is Forgiving, Clement. [5:101]

**

Obey God and His Messenger.
Where do we find details about Salat in the Quran?

Obey God and His Messenger

In the name of God, most Gracious, most, Merciful

When two or more individuals open a joint account at a bank in USA, they have an option of opening an OR account or an AND account. When they open an OR account either party can withdraw funds by one person’s signature. However, when an AND account is opened, both parties must sign before funds can be withdrawn. In other words for the AND account approval of all parties is required for funds withdrawal or to make any changes to the account.

The Quran commands us to obey God AND His messenger. It commands us in 49:1 not to place our opinion above God AND His messenger. The Quran does not give us the luxury of obeying God OR His messenger. In other words we don’t have the choice of obeying God OR obeying His messenger. Thus, obeying God and His messenger boils down to obeying God as it requires God’s endorsement. God’s endorsement is in the words of the Quran. We obey God by following God’s words in the Quran.  We don’t place our opinion above God and His messenger by not placing our opinion outside the confines of the words of the Quran. We cannot obey God and His messenger until and unless what the messenger says coincides with the words of the Quran.

It is:                       obey God and His messenger.
It is not:               obey God or His messenger.

God has given the example of the use of word OR to mean EITHER. The word OR suggests option.

[23:6] Only with their spouses, or those who are rightfully theirs, do they have sexual relations; they are not to be blamed.

[70:30] (They have relations) only with their spouses, or what is legally theirs –
[70:31] anyone who transgresses these limits is a sinner.

God specifies in this category that sexual relations are allowed with EITHER their spouses OR what is legally theirs, but not both.

God has blessed us with all the words we need in the Glorious Quran.

**

As submitters to God alone, our discussions and advocacy on any topic should be based on verses of the Quran.

For those interested here is a mathematical explanation for AND & OR for the mathematically structured book – the Quran

The Difference between And and Or

http://mathforum.org/library/drmath/view/71940.html

Date: 01/23/2008 at 11:59:54

From: Mikki

Subject: and/or

My son had a question that was marked wrong on his paper.  He pointed out to me that by the way it was worded, he felt as though he were correct.  Here is the question:  There are 3 knives, 4 spoons, 4 forks.  What fraction of the utensils are spoons OR forks? He answered 4/11 and was told the teachers edition says 8/11.  I understand the way he read it to be OR meaning one or the other.  If it’s 8/11, shouldn’t it be worded spoons AND forks?  If the answer is 8/11, I want my son to understand why.

Date: 01/23/2008 at 12:24:17

From: Doctor Peterson

Subject: Re: and/or

Hi, Mikki.

The words “and” and “or” can be ambiguous in English, so in math we give them precise meanings.  We have to teach those meanings, but often forget to, which may have happened here.

When we talk about the set of things that are A AND B, we mean that EACH of those things must be BOTH A and B.  Nothing is both a spoon and a fork!  (At least not in this problem.)  So “and” would have been inappropriate.  There are no utensils that are spoons and forks.

When we talk about the set of things that are A OR B, we mean that EACH of them may be EITHER A or B.  That is, we are including in the set BOTH those that are A, AND those that are B.  This is where the confusion and ambiguity come in!  There are 8 utensils that are spoons or forks.

Your son read it in a way that is commonly used in nontechnical English, taking “How many are A or B” to mean two separate questions combined: “How many are A, how many are B”.  I can see how that could be tempting in this case; the two numbers happen to be the same, so he could take the question to mean “How many are A (which is also the same as the number that are B”.  If there had been 3 spoons and 4 forks, that interpretation would not have made as much sense; the best answer he could give would be “3, or 4”.  We don’t combine questions like that in math, to avoid confusion.

So the book was right, but the question is ambiguous if the teacher has not taught (or does not know) the standard mathematical usage. (This usage is important in some later topics, such as probability, so it’s definitely worth teaching.)

If you have any further questions, feel free to write back.

– Doctor Peterson, The Math Forum

http://mathforum.org/dr.math/

 

Date: 01/23/2008 at 12:47:17

From: Doctor Riz

Subject: Re: and/or

Hi Mikki –

I’d like to add one piece to what Dr. Peterson wrote.  While this is a slightly different application of the idea, my students always found this particular example of the logical difference between AND and OR helpful.

In logic, an AND statement is only true if both parts of it are true. If I say, “I am in Vermont AND I am in New Hampshire” the only way that can be true is if I am standing on the border with one foot in each state.

An OR statement is true if either part is true.  If I say, “I am in Vermont OR I am in New Hampshire” that statement is true as long as I am in either state (it’s also true if I’m straddling the border).  The only way an OR statement is not true is if both parts are false, such as if I were standing in Massachusetts when I made my statement about being in Vermont or New Hampshire.

With your question about utensils being spoons OR forks, I count every utensil that is either a spoon or a fork, giving 8 of the 11.  If I were asked what fraction of the utensils were spoons AND forks, there would be zero since the utensil would have to be both things.  There IS a utensil you sometimes see in fast food places which is a spoon shape with teeth on the front edge, and it’s generally referred to as a “spork”, a combination of spoon and fork.  That’s what I’d need for a utensil to be considered a spoon AND a fork.

Does that help?  Write back if you have questions on any of this.

– Doctor Riz, The Math Forum

http://mathforum.org/dr.math/

 

Date: 01/23/2008 at 13:33:11

From: Mikki

Subject: Thank you (and/or)

Thank you both for your prompt responses.  You have taught me something and definitely given me something to think about.

RELATED LINKS

Idolatry Q&A
Obey God and His Messenger
Reversion to Idolatry
Supporting a point of view by Quran
Rashad Khalifa on Quran alone

 

The Study Quran

Could this Quran curb extremism?

The Study Quran project has a ruinous flaw which is promoted as central to the undertaking – commentary from outside the Quran.

The various sects of Islam have do not attribute their differences to the Quran, but to their own commentary. The commentary is based on sources external to the Quran. These sources known as traditions or Hadith and Sunnah are condemned in the Quran.

The Quran is a fully detailed scripture for religious law. Yes one may comment on the verses, but the comment must be supportable by other verses from the Quran. The source has to be internal rather than external to the Quran. There is a translation which does precisely that.

[Quran 5:101] O you who believe, do not ask about matters which, if revealed to you prematurely, would hurt you. If you ask about them in light of the Quran, they will become obvious to you. GOD has deliberately overlooked them. GOD is Forgiver, Clement.

For any study of a verse, the whole verse should be looked, subsequently verses before and after a particular verse and finally in light of the whole Quran prior to drawing any conclusion.

IN LIGHT OF THE QURAN – FREEDOM OF RELIGION

[2:256] There shall be no compulsion in religion: the right way is now distinct from the wrong way.

IN LIGHT OF THE QURAN – BASIC RULES FOR ALL FIGHTING

[60:8]  GOD does not enjoin you from befriending those who do not fight you because of religion, and do not evict you from your homes. You may befriend them and be equitable towards them. GOD loves the equitable.

[60:9]  GOD enjoins you only from befriending those who fight you because of religion, evict you from your homes, and band together with others to banish you. You shall not befriend them. Those who befriend them are the transgressors.

VERSE 47:4

[4:74] If you encounter (in war) those who disbelieve, you may strike the necks. If you take them as captives you may set them free or ransom them, until the war ends. Had GOD willed, He could have granted you victory, without war. But He thus tests you by one another. As for those who get killed in the cause of GOD, He will never put their sacrifice to waste.

Islamic Reformation

In “An Open Letter to Moderate Muslims,” Mr. Ali Rizvi ends by saying Islamic reformation needs radicals. We cannot agree more. Here is the radical idea from the Quran.

Quran is the only source of religious law and following any other source for religious law is idolatry (6:114-115; 7:52; 10:37, 6:19; 6:38). Yes this means that we accept the Quran literally, as it is actually written and without any need for metaphorical explanations. This concept within the words of the Quran is alien to ‘Muslim’ scholars, moderate Muslims and Western scholars of Islam.

Almost all contracts have a “The entire agreement clause.” The Quran makes it clear that it is the only source of religious law. No other source including Hadith or Sunnah may be a source of religious law. No outside or parol evidence other than the words of the Quran can be considered for religious law.

Those who call themselves Muslims and indeed the Moderate Muslims have little or no idea what the Quran states. Most who call themselves Muslims have set aside the Quran and go by volumes of Hadith & Sunnah written 250+ years after the revelation of the Quran. The Quran condemns any hadith or Sunnah (system) other than the Quran. The Western Scholars revel at all the nonsense in the books of Hadith/Sunnah and have no hesitation in defining Islam (in English: Submission) based on books other than the Quran.

Absolutely there should be the study of the Quran. Numerous translations are available in the internet for side by side comparisons. Most translators translate (including Western Scholars) through the lens of the books of Hadith/Sunnah. This is a fatal error. The Quran stands on its own and should be studied that way.

Mr. Reza Aslan in his book, “No god but God” narrates that when Abu Bakr was elected as Caliph he proceeded to carry out his duties with the principle, “what would Mohammad do” in a particular situation. The right principle to follow at that time as well as now is “what to do in light of the Quran.”

A study of the Quran and any conclusion should be based on examining the complete verse, looking at preceding/following verses and subsequently in light of the Quran (5:101).

Reading the Quran in Arabic (2:171), ablution before touching the Quran (56:79), prohibiting menstruating women from touching the Quran and carrying out religious duties, Sunni taraweeh in the month of Ramadan, holding the Quran over someone’s head, cutting-off of hand and FGM are not supported in the Quran. All of this, which qualifies as nonsense originates from the man-written and fabricated books of hadith/Sunnah.

[5:38]  The thief, male or female, you shall mark their hands* as a punishment for their crime, and to serve as an example from GOD. GOD is Almighty, Most Wise.

*5:38 The practice of cutting off the thief’s hand, as decreed by the false Muslims, is a satanic practice without Quranic basis. Due to the special importance of this example, God has provided mathematical proof in support of marking the hand of the thief, rather than severing it. Verse 12:31 refers to the women who so admired Joseph that they “cut” their hands. Obviously, they did not “cut off” their hands; nobody can. The sum of sura and verse numbers are the same for 5:38 and 12:31, i.e., 43. It is also the will and mercy of God that this mathematical relationship conforms with the Quran’s 19-based code. Nineteen verses after 12:31, we see the same word (12:50).

[12:31]  When she heard of their gossip, she invited them, prepared for them a comfortable place, and gave each of them a knife. She then said to him, “Enter their room.” When they saw him, they so admired him, that they cut their hands. They said, “Glory be to GOD, this is not a human being; this is an honorable angel.”

IN LIGHT OF THE QURAN – FREEDOM OF RELIGION

[2:256] There shall be no compulsion in religion: the right way is now distinct from the wrong way.

IN LIGHT OF THE QURAN – BASIC RULES FOR ALL FIGHTING

[60:8]  GOD does not enjoin you from befriending those who do not fight you because of religion, and do not evict you from your homes. You may befriend them and be equitable towards them. GOD loves the equitable.

[60:9]  GOD enjoins you only from befriending those who fight you because of religion, evict you from your homes, and band together with others to banish you. You shall not befriend them. Those who befriend them are the transgressors.

VERSES REFERRED BY MR. ALI RIZVI

[4:88-89]  Why should you divide yourselves into two groups regarding hypocrites (among you)? GOD is the one who condemned them because of their own behavior. Do you want to guide those who are sent astray by GOD? Whomever GOD sends astray, you can never find a way to guide them.
They wish that you disbelieve as they have disbelieved, then you become equal. Do not consider them friends, unless they mobilize along with you in the cause of GOD. If they turn against you, you shall fight them, and you may kill them when you encounter them in war. You shall not accept them as friends, or allies.

[4:90-91]  Exempted are those who join people with whom you have signed a peace treaty, and those who come to you wishing not to fight you, nor fight their relatives. Had GOD willed, He could have permitted them to fight against you. Therefore, if they leave you alone, refrain from fighting you, and offer you peace, then GOD gives you no excuse to fight them.
You will find others who wish to make peace with you, and also with their people. However, as soon as war erupts, they fight against you. Unless these people leave you alone, offer you peace, and stop fighting you, you may fight them when you encounter them. Against these, we give you a clear authorization.

Lessons from History

[8:12-13]  Recall that your Lord inspired the angels: “I am with you; so support those who believed. I will throw terror into the hearts of those who disbelieved. You may strike them above the necks, and you may strike even every finger.”
This is what they have justly incurred by fighting GOD and His messenger. For those who fight against GOD and His messenger, GOD’s retribution is severe.

Grossness of Murder

[5:32]  Because of this, we decreed for the Children of Israel that anyone who murders any person who had not committed murder or horrendous crimes, it shall be as if he murdered all the people. And anyone who spares a life, it shall be as if he spared the lives of all the people. Our messengers went to them with clear proofs and revelations, but most of them, after all this, are still transgressing.

Capital Punishment: When is it Justified?

[5:33-34]  The just retribution for those who fight GOD and His messenger, and commit horrendous crimes, is to be killed, or crucified, or to have their hands and feet cut off on alternate sides, or to be banished from the land. This is to humiliate them in this life, then they suffer a far worse retribution in the Hereafter.
Exempted are those who repent before you overcome them. You should know that GOD is Forgiver, Most Merciful.

[47:4]  If you encounter (in war) those who disbelieve, you may strike the necks. If you take them as captives you may set them free or ransom them, until the war ends. Had GOD willed, He could have granted you victory, without war. But He thus tests you by one another. As for those who get killed in the cause of GOD, He will never put their sacrifice to waste.

VERSE REFERRED BY OTHERS

[9:4-7]  If the idol worshipers sign a peace treaty with you, and do not violate it, nor band together with others against you, you shall fulfill your treaty with them until the expiration date. GOD loves the righteous.
Once the Sacred Months are past, (and they refuse to make peace) you may kill the idol worshipers when you encounter them, punish them, and resist every move they make. If they repent and observe the Contact Prayers (Salat) and give the obligatory charity (Zakat), you shall let them go. GOD is Forgiver, Most Merciful.
If one of the idol worshipers sought safe passage with you, you shall grant him safe passage, so that he can hear the word of GOD, then send him back to his place of security. That is because they are people who do not know.
How can the idol worshipers demand any pledge from GOD and from His messenger? Exempted are those who have signed a peace treaty with you at the Sacred Masjid. If they honor and uphold such a treaty, you shall uphold it as well. GOD loves the righteous.