The Quran mentions Al-Masjid Al-Aqsa in verse 17:1, which is translated in English as, “the farthest place where there is prostration.”
[17:1] Most glorified is the One who summoned His servant (Muhammad) during the night, from the Sacred Masjid (of Mecca) to the farthest place of prostration,* whose surroundings we have blessed, in order to show him some of our signs. He is the Hearer, the Seer.
*17:1 “The Aqsa Masjid” means “the farthest place where there is prostration,” many billions of Light Years away. This verse informs us that Muhammad, the soul, was taken to the highest Heaven to be given the Quran (2:185, 44:3, 53:1-18, & 97:1).
The Al-Aqsa Mosque was constructed in 705 AD, seventy years the revelation of the Quran and the death of Prophet Mohammad. As Jerold S. Auerbach writes in the above link, the artifacts confirm the historical truth in the Quran.
REFERENCE TO JERUSALEM IN THE QURAN
The Quran provides the most accurate history and refers to Jerusalem twice in the Quran. The first reference is when the Children of Israel refused to enter the city (2:28-59; 5:21-26). The second reference is when the Qibla (direction of prayer) was temporarily changed for an interim time period by Prophet Mohammad from Kaba (in Mecca) to Jerusalem (2:142-145).
[12:3] We narrate to you the most accurate history through the revelation of this Quran. Before this, you were totally unaware.
[2:58] Recall that we said, “Enter this town, where you will find as many provisions as you like. Just enter the gate humbly, and treat the people nicely. We will then forgive your sins, and increase the reward for the pious.”
[2:59] But the wicked among them carried out commands other than the commands given to them. Consequently, we sent down upon the transgressors condemnation from the sky, due to their wickedness.
[5:21] “O my people, enter the holy land that GOD has decreed for you, and do not rebel, lest you become losers.”
[5:22] They said, “O Moses, there are powerful people in it, and we will not enter it, unless they get out of it. If they get out, we are entering.”
[5:23] Two men who were reverent and blessed by GOD said, “Just enter the gate. If you just enter it, you will surely prevail. You must trust in GOD, if you are believers.”
[5:24] They said, “O Moses, we will never enter it, so long as they are in it. Therefore, go – you and your Lord – and fight. We are sitting right here.”
[5:25] He said, “My Lord, I can only control myself and my brother. So, allow us to part company with the wicked people.”
[5:26] He said, “Henceforth, it is forbidden them for forty years, during which they will roam the earth aimlessly. Do not grieve over such wicked people.”
[2:142] The fools among the people would say, “Why did they change the direction of their Qiblah?”* Say, “To GOD belongs the east and the west; He guides whoever wills in a straight path.”
*2:142-145 “Qiblah” is the direction one faces during the Contact Prayers (Salat). When Gabriel conveyed to Muhammad the command to face Jerusalem instead of Mecca, the hypocrites were exposed. The Arabs were strongly prejudiced in favor of the Ka`aba as their “Qiblah.” Only the true believers were able to overcome their prejudices; they readily obeyed the messenger.
[2:143] We thus made you an impartial community, that you may serve as witnesses among the people, and the messenger serves as a witness among you. We changed the direction of your original Qiblah only to distinguish those among you who readily follow the messenger from those who would turn back on their heels. It was a difficult test, but not for those who are guided by GOD. GOD never puts your worship to waste. GOD is Compassionate towards the people, Most Merciful.
[2:144] We have seen you turning your face about the sky (searching for the right direction). We now assign a Qiblah that is pleasing to you. Henceforth, you shall turn your face towards the Sacred Masjid. Wherever you may be, all of you shall turn your faces towards it. Those who received the previous scripture know that this is the truth from their Lord. GOD is never unaware of anything they do.
[2:145] Even if you show the followers of the scripture every kind of miracle, they will not follow your Qiblah. Nor shall you follow their Qiblah. They do not even follow each others’ Qiblah. If you acquiesce to their wishes, after the knowledge that has come to you, you will belong with the transgressors.